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日租鋁架

窄架0.75 X 2M 或 闊架1.35 X 2M
$ 2500
  • 包日間來回運費
  • 一次搭架及一次拆架
  • 包表格五
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日租鋁架

日租鋁架-次序如下

1.租機易App 或 網上落單

2.選擇地區

3.送架日期

4.提交後, 租機易會聯絡你安排送架(每日截單時間為下午15:00)

鋁架安全標準嗎?

金屬棚架工作安全守則

流動式金屬通架在直杆的底部安裝有小腳輪,而小腳輪應屬旋轉軸承類型,並應固定於通架
的直杆上,這樣即使小腳輪離開了地面也不會脫落。

在樓宇內及樓宇外使用流動式金屬塔式通架須遵守不同的規定:
(a) 在樓宇內使用:
高度與最小底邊長度比率應限於3.5。
(b) 在樓宇外使用:
(i) 高度與最小底邊長度比率不應大於3。露天使用通架時,應把
通架繫緊於施工的樓宇上。
(ii) 當金屬通架位於有強風吹襲的地方,應計算風力,並用壓儎鐵
或牽索等固定通架,使安全系數不少於1.5 。另外,應檢查小腳
輪可承受的額外負荷。

闊架 2米*1.35米 , 可配斜梯

鋁架

日租鋁架-點租法?

$2000 起由師傳報價

月租鋁架-點租法?

最低消費是首月租金$2800+按金$2800 ,包日間裝拆及來回運費、表格五(2張),之後按30日比例計算。

到架收$5600,30日後按日租($2800÷30=$93.4/日)

31日=$2800+$93.4=$2893.4

仲考慮緊用鋁架定升降台? 可到〈租升降台vs租鋁架哪種比較好用-種類價錢限制分析

租幾日鋁架點計法?(鋁架價目表)

租幾日鋁架 (如果覺得價錢太貴 , 可考慮 租3.2米手攪台$800/星期, 按此了解手攪台收費 )

日租鋁架

窄架0.75 X 2M 或 闊架1.35 X 2M
$ 日租鋁架
  • 包日間來回運費
  • 一次搭架及一次拆架
熱門

 

Guidelines On
Working At Height

 

 

 

 

N.B. This document is long but you can easily navigate through it by selecting
the ‘view’ menu on the top left hand side
of your computer screen and choose ‘document map’. Click on a heading to take you directly to that
point. Alternatively the contents page is also directly linked to the section
headings

 

Contents

 

Part 1: Introduction

    The Working At Height Regulations 2005

Useful
Links

Hazards

Risk Assessment & Hierarchy of Control
Measures

General Precautionary Measures

Falls
of Persons

Falling
Objects

Structural Collapse

Access
Equipment

Decision Flow Chart

 

Part 2: Use of Step Ladders
and Trestles

                General Standards      

                Ladders

                Stepladders

                Trestles

 

Part 3: Use of Tower
Scaffolds

                General Standards

                Specific Requirements For Tower Scaffolds

 

Part 4: Use of Mobile
Elevating Work Platforms

                General Standards

                Specific Requirements For MEWPs

 

Part 5: Use of Scaffolds

                General Standards

                Specific Requirements for Scaffolds

 

Part 6: Roof Work and
Fragile Surfaces

                General Standards

                Fragile Roofs and Surfaces

 

Part 7: Steeplejack
Access

                General Standards

 

Part 8: Rope Access

                General Standards

 

Part 9: Fall Protection
& Fall Arrest Devices

                General Standards

                Safety Nets

                Airbags

                Safety Harnesses and Lanyards

                Inspection of Harnesses and Lanyards

 

Part 1: Introduction

 

Throughout the UK in
2001/2002, 68 people died and nearly 4,000 suffered a serious injury as a
result of a fall from height in the workplace. 
Falls from height are the most common cause of fatal injury and the
second most common cause of major injury to employees, accounting for 15% of
all such       injuries.   Many activities in a sugar factory involve
working at heights       (WAH).

 

This
section covers the Company procedures to be followed when engaged in work at
height activities.

 

The Work at Height Regulations 2005 define ‘Work at Height’ as meaning

 

·        
“Work in any place, including a place at or below ground level;

·        
Obtaining access to or egress from such a place while at work, except by
a staircase in a permanent workplace, where, if measures required by the
Regulations were not taken, a person could fall a distance liable to cause
personal injury.” 

 

Work at height includes:

 

·        
The use of ladders, step-ladders,

·        
The use of scaffolding,

·        
The use of Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs),

·        
The use of scaffold towers;

·        
Steeple jacking, rope access;

·        
Roof work and access to roofs;

·        
Work in lift shafts;

·        
Sheeting vehicles or access to top of road tankers;

·        
Working near and access to pits and excavations;

 

In the
selection of work equipment and the use of access or work areas, additional
reference must be made to any food safety/hygiene requirements laid down in
Company procedures.

 

The
regulations can be viewed at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/legislation/uk.htm

 

Then
enter “work at height” in to the search engine.

 

 

Useful Links

 

The
HSE ‘Falls’ page: http://www.hse.gov.uk/falls/index.htm

 

http://www.irata.org/

Click here for details of how to become a member of IPAF

 

 

 

http://www.ipaf.org/

 

 

Rope access training centrehttp://www.narc.co.uk/

 

 

 

Hazards

 

The
main hazards associated with work at heights are:

 

·        
People falling;

 

·        
Things falling onto people.  These
may occur as a result of inadequate edge protection or securing of people or
equipment or due to structural collapse, e.g. caused by component failure or
subsidence.

 

Risk Assessment & Hierarchy of Control Mea

A risk
assessment should be carried out before any work at heights is undertaken.  The risk assessment should consider the
hierarchy of         prevention as
follows:

1.     
Avoid
working at height where it is reasonably practicable to do so, for example by
working from existing platforms and/or using long reach equipment or valves
with extended operating spindles:

 

2.     
Prevent falls of people and
objects by carrying out a risk assessment and taking measures to prevent so far
as is reasonably practicable people or objects falling.  This might include doing the work safely from
an existing work place or choosing the right work equipment to prevent falls;

 

3.     
Mitigate the consequences of a fall by minimizing the distance and
choosing suitable fall arrest equipment;

 

4.     
Give collective protective measures (e.g. guardrails, nets, airbags)
precedence over personal protective measures like a safety harness.

 

The risk assessment should
focus on:

 

·        
The people (fitness e.g. injuries which could affect ability to climb,
scared of heights, susceptible to epileptic fits or other special
circumstances)

·        
The task and activity involved;

·        
The equipment to be used (e.g. ladders, scaffolds) including erection
and dismantling;

·        
The location (e.g. near or over water, proximity to roads, overhead
power lines, confined spaces, process vessels, steam vents, explosion vents and
other vents);

·        
The environment, poor conditions and slippery surfaces (e.g. weather
temperature both hot and cold, wind);

·        
Application of safe procedures;

·        
The affect on pedestrian access, rights of way, falling objects;

·        
Emergency arrangements and rescue plan.

 

 

General Precautionary Measures

 

Falls of persons

 

In general measures have to be taken where a person
could fall a distance liable to cause injury. 
This is often considered to be about 2m or more.  However many injuries also occur when a
person falls less than 2m. If, therefore, there are factors which make the risk
of injury more likely, precautions will be needed if a fall of less than 2m is
possible (e.g. working near a traffic route or above a fragile, sharp or
dangerous surface).

There
are three main ways of controlling the risk of people falling that must be
considered in the order listed:

 

·        
Provision of edge protection;

·        
Use of safety harnesses;

·        
Maintaining a safe distance (3 metres minimum) by means of a physical
barrier (a painted line or bunting is not acceptable), from the edge, gaps or a
fragile or dangerous surface of flat roofs or slightly inward sloping roofs.

 

Where
edge protection is provided it must extend at least 950mm above the working
platform.

 

There
are a number of ways of mitigating the effect of a fall which include
minimizing the distance which a person call fall, the use of airbags, safety
nets and fall arrest devices which slow down or arrest the decent.

 

Falling objects

 

The
risk of objects falling onto persons may be controlled by:

 

·        
Providing a barrier, e.g. a toe board, or brick net guard, to prevent
items from slipping or being knocked off the edge of a structure;

·        
Securing objects to the structure or lifting equipment, e.g. lashing of
scaffold boards;

·        
Danger zones should be clearly marked with suitable safety signs,
indicating that access is restricted to essential personnel and that hard hats
must be worn.

·        
All objects should be conveyed mechanically or manually both
horizontally and vertically, not thrown. 
Scaffold poles and planks should be conveyed vertically either attached
to a rope or by mechanical means to minimize the risk of falling objects.

 

Structural Collapse

 

Only those competent to do so, must build structures.  They need to have sufficient knowledge,
understanding of the risks and precautions and experience in the
erection/dismantling of the structure. 
The skills, knowledge and experience required with depend upon the
nature of the structure concerned and the intended use(s).

 

In
general, greater care will be required in the case of structures that will
support people than those that support only material.

Access Equipmen

 

A wide
range of access equipment is available. 
There are certain considerations that apply to all types of work at
height equipment as follows:

 

·        
Where equipment is hired it must be fit for purpose.  Where contractors are used they must be
competent and there must be an appropriate exchange of information about the
risks involved.

·        
All equipment must be properly maintained and regularly inspected.

·        
Anybody who is expected to use access equipment must be trained and
competent to do so.  Competence is a
combination of appropriate practical and theoretical knowledge, training and
experience, which collectively enables a person to undertake the task safely
and detect any potential risks, defects in the equipment and recognise any
implications for health and safety.

·        
Precautions must be taken to prevent the fall of objects or persons.

 

The
height of any working platform, etc. must not normally be increased by placing
ladders on it, and never when there is a risk of falling off the edge.  Build another platform or use alternative
means of access

Decision Flow Chart

The
following diagram should be used to help make decisions on working at height.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part 2: Use of Ladders Stepladders and Trestles.

 

General Standards

 

Ladders,
stepladders and trestles should be manufactured to appropriate standards as
follows:

 

Timber  – BS1129 Kite marked Class I: Industrial

Glass
fibre and aluminium – BS EN 131 Kite marked Industrial;

Aluminium – BS 2037; 1994
Kite marked Class I: Industrial S7377: 1994

 

Access
equipment must comply with food safety and hygiene requirements with no timber
in sugar areas.  Ladders for electrical
work should be non conductive.  Aluminium
access equipment may only be used in a zoned area in accordance with corporate
procedures under the DSEAR regulations.

 

All
ladders, stepladders and trestles must be:

 

·        
Stored and handled with care to prevent damage and deterioration.

 

·        
Subject to a programme of regular inspection (there should be a marking,
coding or tagging system to confirm that the inspection has taken place).

 

·        
Checked by the user before use.

 

·        
Taken out of use if damaged – and destroyed or repaired.

 

Any
person using ladders, stepladders or trestles must be competent and follow
Company safety rules.

 

 

 

Ladders

 

Ladders are best only used as a means of access to
a workplace.  They should only be used at
a place of work for low risk tasks of short duration
.  Low risk
means that it is not more than 6 metres high, a secure handhold is available
all the time, the work involved is of light/minor nature which does not produce
significant sideways or outward (for leaning ladders) forces on the equipment.

 

Ladders
should not be used if it is reasonably practicable to use a safer alternative
(scaffold, MEWP, tower scaffold or in permanent cases a staircase).

When
using a ladder make sure that:

 

·        
The ladder is angled to minimise the risk of slipping outwards.  As a rule of thumb the ladder needs to be
‘one metre out for every four metres up’. 
(Note: rungs are about a 1/3 metre apart).

 

·        
The top of the ladder rest against a solid surface. Ladders should not
rest on fragile or other insecure materials such as cement sheet, or plastic
guttering.  If necessary use a stay or
standoff resting on a firm surface nearby.

 

·        
Both feet of the ladder are on a firm, level footing (not house bricks
or similar) with rungs horizontal and non-slip.

 

·        
All ladders should be secured from falling.  This will usually be by fixing at the top, or
sometimes the base.

 

·        
If the ladder cannot be fixed, a second person foots the ladder while it
is being used (this also applies while the ladder is being fixed).

 

·        
The ladder extends a sufficient height (about 1m) above any landing place
where people will get on and off – unless some other adequate handhold is
available.

 

·        
Where ladders are used in a run measuring a vertical distance of more
than 9m, suitable landing areas or platforms are provided.

 

·        
Users face the ladder at all times whilst climbing or descending and
keep their body centred between the stiles.

 

·        
Users always maintain ‘3 point contact’ i.e. tow hands, one foot or two
feet one hand when ascending or descending.

 

·        
Only one person at a time to climb or work from a ladder.

 

·        
It is kept away from overhead cables and similar hazards.

 

Stepladders

 

Stepladders provide a free-standing means of
access, but they require careful use. 
They are not designed for any degree of side loading and are relatively


easily overturned.  Avoid over-reaching.  People have been killed getting down from
workplaces such as loft spaces when they have stepped onto the top stop of a
stepladder that has then overturned.  The
top step of a stepladder should not be worked from unless it has been designed
for this purpose. Stepladders should b e fitted with a loop top handrail or
other equally effective handrail.

 

The small platform fitted at the top of many
stepladders is designed to support tools, paint pots etc., and should not be
used as a working place. However some stepladders have been designed with
larger lower platforms specially designed for standing on with adequate
handrails.

 

Where practical steel or aluminium stepladders
fitted with secure full-length handrails and a top platform with handrails on
three sides should be used.  These are
usually fitted with locking wheels to move them easily and then secure in
position when in use.

 

When using a stepladder make
sure that:

 

·        
It is on a secure surface, and with due regard to ensuring stability at
all times.

 

·        
It is long enough for the work in question

 

·        
There is enough space to open them out fully.

 

·        
They are kept away from overhead cables and similar hazards.

 

Trestles

 

Platforms based on trestles should be fully
boarded, adequately supported (at least one support per 1.5 metre of board for
standard scaffold boards) and provided with standard edge protection where a
person could fall a distance liable to cause personal injury.  This involves handrails, intermediate rails
and toe boards.

 

 

 

 

When using a trestle make sure that:

 

·        
It is on a secure surface, and with due regard to ensuring stability at
all times.

·        
It is kept away from overhead cables and similar hazards.

·        
Any work platform is long enough to work without overreaching.

 

Part 3: Use of Tower Scaffolds

 

General Standards

 

Section/prefabricated
(usually aluminium) scaffold towers can be erected quickly and can give good
safe access. However they are involved in numerous accidents each year.  These accidents usually happen because the tower
has either not be erected properly or had not been used properly.

 

Tower
scaffolds must only be erected by people who are trained and competent to do
so, as set out by PASMA or their equivalent. 
Scaffolds should be used within their designed safe operating limits.  As with scaffolding in general, Platforms
should be fully boarded out and fitted with edge protection (guardrails,
intermediate rails and toe boards). 
There must be a safe means of access to the working platform and the scaffold
inspected before use.

 

Tower
scaffolds are often made of lightweight materials and care is needed to ensure
that the scaffold remains stable while in use. 

 

The
manufacturers of aluminium towers recommend a maximum height, shortest base
ratio of

·        
3:1 if the tower is to be used outside; increasing to

·        
3:5:1 if the tower is used inside. 

 

The use of outriggers to
extend the base minimum dimension can allow an increase in height provided the
formula of 3:1 or 3:5:1 is followed.

 

Where
practicable the tower should be secured to the structure being worked on.  This is essential for heavy work such as grit
blasting and water jetting, or where high wind loadings on the tower can be
expected.

 

Follow
the manufacturers instructions for erection, used and dismantling.  Have a copy of the instruction manual
available – if the scaffold has been hired, the hirer ought to provide this
information.

 

They
muse be inspect as for a normal scaffold

 

 

 

Specific Requirements for Tower Scaffolds: –

 

·        
The tower is vertical and the legs rest properly on firm, level ground

·        
Any wheels and outriggers are locked – base plates provide greater
stability if the tower does not have to be moved.

·        
With mobile tower scaffolds,

>          
The wheels are firmly fixed to the base of the uprights so that they
cannot fall out when the scaffold is being moved.

>          
The scaffold is never moved with anyone on the working platform

>          
Check that there are no power lines or overhead obstructions in the way

>          
The tower is only moved by pushing at the base and check there are not
holes or dips in the ground

·        
There is a safe way to get to and from the work platform for example,
internal ladders. Climbing up the outside of the tower may pull it over

·        
Ladders are never place on tower scaffold working platforms in order to
increase the height which can be reached or apply other horizontal loads which
could tilt the tower.

·        
Edge protection, (guard rails and intermediate rails or other suitable
barriers and toe boards) are provided at platforms

·        
Guard rails are provided on any intermediate platforms and also toe
boards where these platforms are being used as working platforms or for storing
materials

·        
The tower is rigidly tied to the structure it is serving or provide
other additional support if,

>          
The tower is sheeted

>          
It is likely to be exposed to strong winds

>          
It is used for carrying out grit blasting or water jetting

>          
Heavy materials are lifted up the outside o the tower or the tower base
is too small to ensure stability of the height of the platform

·        
If ties are needed, check that they are put in place as required when
the scaffold is erected.  Do not fix ties
to the centres of the walled aluminium tubes. 
Make sure the ties are checked from time to time and that necessary ties
are kept in place when the scaffold is dismantled.

·        
The working platform is not overloaded.

 

Part 4: Use of Mobile Elevating Work Platforms (MEWPs)

 

General Standards

 

Mobile
elevating work platforms shall be used only after a suitable and a competent
person has completed a suitable and sufficient risk assessment.

 

Only those trained to IPAF
standards and holding a PAL (Powered access Licence) card or equivalent, for
the type of MEWP being used shall be permitted to operate a MEWP.

 

When
in use there shall be a designated supervisor to ensure a safe system of work
is adhered to:

·        
A harness or fall arrest system shall be used.

·        
Ground stability shall be assessed and regularly checked

·        
An emergency rescue plan shall be in place

·        
The platform shall be suitable guarding and edge protection

·        
When in use, the platform shall be subject to a daily inspection
check.  This includes a daily check of
tyre pressures, (when pneumatic tyres are fitted), as the stability of MEWPs is
highly dependent on correct tyre pressures in these cases

 

Specific Requirements for MEWPs: –

 

·        
Ensure the work area is cordoned off by, for example, using cones and
warning signs. If there are other vehicles around guidance should be obtained
from the Site Safety Coordinator.

·        
Enter and leave the platform in the fully lowered position using the
steps or walkway provided.

·        
Check for appropriate safety harness lanyards that are attached to
secure anchorages inside the cage. Safety devices must never be overridden or
interfered with.

·        
Ensure controls are engaged gently and smoothly

·        
Check for obstructions or people before raising or lowering the platform

·        
Ensure that materials and/or tools are not leant against the outside of
the platform

·        
Ensure the MEWP is never used a s a jack prop or tie to support other
structures or machines

·        
Ensure it is not used as a crane or for suspending loads beneath the
platform

·        
Check that guardrails, ladders or staging are not used to extend the
reach for any purpose.

·        
Check that hoses and cable are not left hanging free without proper
support

·        
The machine must never be used to tow other vehicles unless it is
properly designed and equipped to do so

·        
Ensure that self propelled MEWPs are not towed as this can cause serious
mechanical damage

·        
It is only permitted to travel with the platform of a MEWP occupied when
the machine has been specifically designed for this purpose.  The manufacturers instructions must be
followed carefully.

·        
Working from or moving a MEWP in the vicinity of overhead high voltage
lines, or other overhead lines or cables can be extremely dangerous and
essential precautions must be taken. 

 

Part 5: Use of Scaffolds

 

General Standards

 

N.B.
See Separate guidance document: ‘Standard For The Erection & Dismantling
of Scaffolding’

 

Scaffolds must be erected in
accordance with BS5973 (Code of Practice of Access and Working Scaffolds and
Special Scaffold Structures in Steel) BS 5974 (Code of Practice of temporarily
installed suspended scaffolds and access equipment) NASC Note SG4, (The Use of
Fall Arrest Equipment whilst Erecting Altering and Dismantling Scaffolding) and
HSE’s Guidance on the Work at Height Regulations

 

Scaffolding
must only be erected or modified by people who are trained and competent to do
so.  Scaffolding should be constructed in
accordance with recognised standards from components which are of adequate
design and strength and which are inspected at regular intervals.  The scaffolding itself should be inspected by
a competent person

·        
Before it is used for the first time, once constructed or substantially
modified

·        
After severe weather conditions or any other event which might have
jeopardised its strength or stability

·        
In any case within a seven day period

 

These inspections must
be recorded

 

Specific Requirements for Scaffolds: –

 

·        
There is a plan for the scaffold with a copy available on site

·        
It is based on a firm, level foundation. 
The ground or foundation should be capable of supporting the weight of
the scaffold and any loads likely to be placed on it.  Watch out of voids such as basements of
drains, or patches of soft ground, which could collapse when loaded.  Provide extra support as necessary.

·        
Standard (uprights) are resting on suitable base place and (where the
scaffolding is not on hard standing) timer sole boards.  Bricks, blocks and other building materials
should not be used as packing.

·        
It is capable of supporting loads likely to be placed on it. Scaffolds
are not usually designed to support heavy loads on their working
platforms.  If intending to load out
platforms, tell whoever is providing the scaffold – a special design might be
required.

·        
Where there is a sheeting or some other feature which will increase the
wind loading of the scaffold, that has this been allowed for in the design.

·        
The uprights are vertical and the horizontals are horizontal

·        
The uprights are close enough together and the spacing is consistent.
(Note: the permissible width of bays will vary with the operations for which
the scaffolding in intended.  The greater
the loading, the closer the uprights will need to be)

·        
It is braced and tied into a permanent structure or otherwise
stabilised.  Rakers only provide
stability when they are braced and footed adequately, Single tube rakers alone
do not usually provide this and need to be braced to prevent buckling.  Put ties in place as the scaffold is erected.
Only remove them in stages as it is removed. 
If a tie is removed to allow work to proceed, and equivalent tie should
be provided nearby to maintain stability.

·        
Working platforms are properly supported (each board resting on at least
three supports – not board should overhand the last support by a distance
greater than three times its thickness) fully boards out (not gaps for people
or materials to fall through) and wide enough to allow safe access and the safe
movements of materials.

·        
Guardrails, intermediate rails (or equivalent Safeguards) and toe boards
are fitted to all working platforms to prevent people and materials falling.

·        
There is safe ladder or other access onto the work platforms.  Long tasks or where there is significant
movement of material should be done using a staircase.

·        
There are safe arrangements for the raising and lowering of materials

·        
Scaffolds have hi-visibility sleeves (e.g. red and white bands at the
corners at ground floor level or as appropriate

·        
Incomplete sections of the scaffold are marked with suitable warning
notices

·        
When a scaffold is not a in sue it is marked with appropriate warning
signs (in compliance with Safety Signs and Signals Regulations) and delineated
by physical means

 

Part 6: Roof Work and Fragile Surfaces

 

General Standards

 

Routine access to a roof
which is inherently safe, because it has fixed edge protection (minimum hand
rail, intermediate rail and toeboard) may be undertaken using a written safe
system of work.  This would be included
in a notice at the access point. 

 

Where the work involves, for
example the roof structures, roof covering or handrails or in any way affects
the inherent safety of the roof, a valid Roof Work Permit will be required.

 

All other roof work, not covered by the above,
would only be done under the terms of a valid Roof Work Permit

 

A roof is defined as the top
covering of a building or structure or part of such building or structure
(e.g. roof of a single storey extension to a
building) and excludes terraces and balconies that have been designed as a
place of work with, for example, fixed parapet walls and handrails.

 

A fragile surface is defined as a surface
which would be liable to fail if any foreseeable loading were to be applied to
it.

 

Work
on roofs and/or close to fragile surfaces is always potentially hazardous.  The principle danger is that of failing,
typically from the edge of the roof, but also from ladders or other means of
getting to the place where work is to be done and through openings, roof lights
and fragile or corroded roofing materials. 
In view of the hazards involved with roof work:

 

·        
Careful planning is essential

·        
Suitable precautions must be taken at all stages of the work

·        
Roof work must only be done by people who are trained and competent to
do it safely – without risk to themselves or to any one else

 

The design of new structures should include the
provision of a safe means of access to the roof e.g. from an internal
staircase.  Wherever possible, features
that will help work to be done safely should be incorporated in the structure,
e.g. walkways across roofs, anchorages for safety harnesses and lines permanent
handrails.

 

Roof work is potentially very
dangerous work that requires the closest attention to detail at all times.  To enable risks to be controlled effectively
there should be a job-specific safe systems of work in writing, agreed and understood
by all parties, before work starts. 

 

Rigorous
supervision is required to ensure that the agreed systems of work are followed
in practice.  There should also be a
system to allow necessary changes to be made and confirmed.  The safe system of work should be clear,
concise and include simple sketches where necessary to ensure safety.

 

Fragile Roofs and Surfaces

 

Some
roof coverings may appear to be strong enough to support a person’s weight but
they often cannot carry the concentrated load of someone walking on the
covering or stumbling and falling.

 

Many
types of single thickness asbestos sheeting are liable to shatter without
warning and are likely to become even more brittle with age.  Other potentially fragile materials include
wired glass; plastic sheeting and corrugated steel sheeting.

 

Materials
that might normally be recognised as fragile can be concealed beneath dirt,
paint, rust, sprayed coatings or other substances.

 

Even
where the main roof structure is not fragile, parts of the roof, such as a roof
lights may well be and the appropriate precautions should be taken.

 

Accident prevention is based
on the following:

·        
Identification of potentially fragile materials before commencing work
and making where necessary

·        
Awareness of the hazard by those planning and performing operations
which involve work on or access across fragile materials

·        
The provision of use of a sufficient number of crawling boards,
lightweight staging etc, so that it is never necessary for the weight of the
people (and of their tools/materials) to be applied directly to the roof.

·        
Use of safety harnesses attached to suitable anchorages (where
appropriate).

 

In
some cases, it will be both possible and preferable to do the work by means of
other than working on or from the fragile roof itself e.g. by using tower
scaffolds or mobile access platforms. It should be stressed that on a fragile
roof, it is no safer to walk along the line of the sheeting bolts (i.e. follow
the purlins) than it is to work of the other parts. Where access is needed on a
regular basis, permanent walkways should be provided.

 

Part 7: Steeple Jacks Access

 

General Standards

 

Works
must be carried by specialists who are appropriately trained – e.g. trained to
the requirements of ATLAS, (Association of Technical, Lightening Access
Specialist) – formerly Master Federation of Steeplejacks and Lightening
Engineers. Information is available in the recommended safe working methods for
the Steeplejack industry, published in 1989. 
ATLAS now publishes this.

 

To do
this they require specialist skills and equipment. Registered steeplejack
labour only may be used for all aspects of steeplejack work.  By this means only can it be assumed
necessary experience and skill are available to undertake the job in hand. All
grades of steeplejacks are defined in the industry “Working Rule Agreement” and
these skills are incorporated into the Construction Industry Steeplejacks and
Lightning Conductor Fitter Record Scheme” which provides for registration of
all grades of steeplejack operatives and defines their area of skills and
responsibilities.

 

Access
is key to a steeplejack operative because that often concerns him for more than
50% of his working day. Usually access for the steeplejack cannot, by other
means, be provided for them. More often than not they, themselves arrange to
ASCEND or DECEND to a position which is inaccessible

 

Ascending
access can also be permanent access equipment provided during an/or after
construction of the structure such as fixed ladders, inserts, gantries, lifts,
hand and foot irons plus cradle and access rails. All are purpose made and
designed for the job involved. This access can also be by all types of
mechanical and manual man riding equipment such as winches, hoists, and cradles
or bosuns chairs.

 

Part 8: Rope Access

 

General Standards

 

All rope access work may only be done by a
company with IRATA membership, using workers in possession of a current IRATA
certificate or equivalent.

 

Anyone
involved in rope access operations should familiarise themselves with BS
7985:2002 ‘The use of rope access methods for industrial purposes’. The
Industrial Rope Access Trade Association (IRATA) has advice and training
courses available.

 

Wherever
rope access is considered, as with all work at height, the safest means of
access should always be the first consideration.  Such as doing the work from inside a
building, using scaffold or MEWPS.

 

Rope
access should only be used within a defined safe system of work.  The system should be specify rescue
arrangements, selection of correct equipment selection of the people with the
necessary level of competence and arrangements for communications and control
of the work

 

All operatives must be
competent to

·        
Properly inspect access equipment before every use

·        
Understand all risks arising from the access method and work task

·        
Use all access techniques required by a particular worksite

 

All
equipment should be appropriate to its application.  Most rope access equipment carries a CE
mark.  All access equipment should be
supplied with a certificate of conformity, giving the specifications and
performance characteristics where appropriate. 
It there is any doubt as to the suitability of equipment, obtain advise
from a competent supplier. 

 

Equipment
should be inspected before each use and examined thoroughly by a competent
person in accordance with a specified schedule, normally at intervals no
greater than 6 months.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The
work should be managed by ensuring:

 

·        
Operatives will always be attached to at least two independently
anchored safety systems

·        
Connections with the rope access system are in an area where there is no
risk of a fall from a height, unless there is a protection by other means

·        
Exclusion zones are established as appropriate.  This may require zones at locations other
than top and bottom of the rope access work

·        
An efficient communications systems should be established, e.g. mobile
phone, radio whistle etc

·        
All practical measure should be taken to avoid injury-causing impact
with the structure or obstructions

·        
Operatives should be properly dress and equipped, appropriate to the
work situations and conditions

 

The
results of thorough inspections should be recorded.  Copies should be available on site when
specialist contractors are used.  Rope
access equipment is classified as lifting equipment under the requirements of
LOLER.

 

 

In
addition to general controls for rope access, there sill be specific
considerations such as:

·        
Type of access method, e.g. decent ascent, traversing suspension, aide
climbing

·        
Ease of anchoring

·        
Ease of access to and egress from work position

·        
Objective hazards during the work e.g. wind, sun rain (especially wind)

·        
Dangers to third parties

 

The
level of skill required of operatives and the level of necessary supervision
will be indicated by these factors

 

Part 9: Fall Protection and Fall Arrest Devices

 

General Standards

 

It is
good practice and part of the WAH regulations that collective protection
measure such as handrails, safety nets and airbags should have priority over
individual protections measures such as safety harnesses and lanyards.

 

All
equipment should be regularly inspected and properly maintained.  Checks should be make by the users each time
they are used or on a daily basis for collective measures like airbags.  All equipment should be subject to detailed
inspections at suitable frequencies of about 6 months with interim inspections
if they are used in arduous conditions. 
Safety harnesses and lanyards need special care and more detail is given
below.

 

Safety Nets

 

Safety
nest are widely used to arrest falls of people, tools and materials from height
but competent installation is essential. The correct tensioning of the next is
important and normally specialist companies are available to fit nets.  Nets are used for roofing work and for some
refurbishment work. Nets, however, have a limited application since they are
not suitable for in low-level construction where there is insufficient
clearance below the net to allow it to deflect the required distance after
impact.  Safety nets should be: –

 

·        
Positioned, where possible, so that people will not fall more than 2
metres, hit the ground or other obstructions

·        
Installed as close as possible beneath the roof surface

·        
Securely attached and able to withstand a person falling onto them

·        
Installed and maintained by competent personnel

 

If
nets are used for falls greater than 2 m (max 6m or 3m within 2m of supporting
edge of the net) they should have: –

·        
An area greater that 35m2

·        
A minimum side length (width) greater than 5m

·        
Maximum supporting space 2.5m

·        
An individual anchor point capacity of 6 kn applied at 45degrees to he
horizontal and sufficient strength over combined anchor point

·        
Have adequate clearance below to allow the net to perform satisfactorily

Safety
nets should be manufactured to EN 1263 Part 1 and should be erected to EN1263
Part II standards. BS8093 also give much information on the installation and
use of safety nets.

 

Airbags

 

Airbags are used when it is
either not possible or practical to use safety nets.

Only
reputable suppliers should be employed for the provision of air bags

When
air bags are used, it is important to ensure that the bags are of sufficient
strength and the air pressure high enough to ensure that any falling person
does not make contact with the ground

 

Safety Harness and lanyards

 

Providing a safe place of
work and system of work to prevent falls should always be the first
consideration.  However, there may be
circumstances in which is it not practicable for all or any of the requirements
for guardrails etc to be provided (for example, where guard rails are taken
down for short periods to land materials). 
Where people may still approached an open edge from which they would be
liable to fall a distance which may cause injury, other forms of protection
will be needed.  Inc some cases a
suitably attaché harness and line could allow safe working.

 

When using harness and
lanyards, remember

 

·        
A harness will not prevent a fall – it can only minimise the risk of
injury if there is a fall.  The shock
load to the body when the line goes tight or when they strike against parts of
the structure during the fall may injure the person who falls.  A shock absorber fitted to the harness
lanyards can reduce the risk of injury from shock loads

·        
Allow for a free fall distance of no more than 2m

·        
Consider how to recover anyone who does fall

·        
Anyone who needs to attach him or herself should be able to do so from a
safe position.  They need to be able to
attaché themselves before they move into a position where they relying on the
protection provided by the harness.

·        
The harness lanyard should be attached above the wearer where
possible.  Using running lines or inertia
reels can provide extra free movement. 
Any attachment point must be capable of withstanding the shock load in
the event of a fall – expert advice may be needed.

·        
Installation of equipment to which harnesses will be fixed must be
supervised by a suitably qualified person and make sure everyone who uses a
harness knows how to check, wear and adjust it before use and how to connect
themselves to the structure or safety line as appropriate.

 

Inspection of Harness and Lanyards

 

A regime for the inspection
of harnesses and lanyards should be established.  The regime should include: –

 

·        
The harness and lanyards to be inspected (including their unique identification)

·        
The frequency and type of inspection (pre-use checks, detailed
inspection and, where appropriate, interim inspection)

·        
Designated competent persons to carry out the inspections

·        
Action to be take on finding defective harnesses and lanyards

·        
Means of recording the inspections

·        
Training of users and a means of monitoring the inspection regime to
verify inspections are carried out correctly

 

It is essential that the
person carrying out any inspection is sufficiently independent and impartial to
allow them to make objective decisions and has appropriate and genuine
authority to discard defective lanyards. 
This does not mean that competent persons must necessarily be employed
from an external company, although many manufacturers and/or suppliers offer inspection
services and training in the inspection of their products.

 

Additional harnesses and
lanyards will be required to use as replacements, in the event that defective
lanyards have to be taken out of use.

 

Harnesses and Lanyards should
be subject to pre-use check and detailed inspections and (as appropriate)
interim inspections. Competent persons must carry these out, to identify
defects or damage that may affect safety

 

 

Pre-use checks:

·        
These checks are essential and should be carried out each time, before
the lanyard is used.

·        
Pre-use checks should be tactile and visual.  The who lanyard should be subject to the
check, by passing it slowly through the hands (e.g. to detect small cuts of 1mm
in the edges, softening or hardening of fibres, ingress of contaminants).  A visual check should be undertaken in good
light and will normally take a few minutes.

 

Detailed inspections

·        
These more formal, in-depth inspections should be carried out
periodically at minimum intervals specified in the inspection regime.  It is recommended that there is a detailed
inspection atleast every six months.

·        
For frequently used lanyards it is suggested that this is increased to
at least every three months, particularly when the equipment is used in arduous
environments (e.g. demolition, steel erection, scaffolding MEWPs)

 

 

 

 

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